UNU-CRIS Working Papers

Online papers can be read with Acrobat Reader.

The Working Papers Series on Comparative Regional Integration Studies is devoted to the study of regional integration from a comparative and interdisciplinary perspective. It covers theory, empirical work and policy analysis, and includes contributions on the political, economic, social and cultural aspects of co-operation at the level of both macro-regions and micro-regions. While committed to the highest academic standards, the series aims to be accessible to policy-makers and practitioners and seeks to encourage informed debate on comparative regional integration.

Please click here to consult the specific guidelines of the UNU-CRIS Working Papers.


W-2003/5: The Meaning of Regional Integration : Introducing Positioning Theory in Regional Integration Studies

By: Nikki Slocum and Luk Van Langenhove

This paper proposes a constructionist and discursive approach and methodology for studyingregional integration and related issues, such as cooperation between states, the formation oftransnational regions as actors in governance, and identity and social cohesion. First, the paperpresents an alternative ontology for social science. Positioning theory is then introduced as ananalytical framework that highlights the meanings attributed to spaces, to persons seen asrepresenting those spaces, as well as the social tasks accomplished through theircommunications and interactions. This social-psychological perspective is of theoretical andpractical use, as it illuminates possibilities for change in conception and action. A brief discussionof validity and reliability criteria for the new framework is offered, and Foresight is suggested asa congruent methodology due to its participatory, prospective, and active orientation. Finally,some broader implications of the approach are explored, and future research directions aresuggested.


Download Paper


<- Back to: UNU-CRIS Working Papers

W-2008/8: SAARC: The Changing Dimensions

The South Asian Association of Regional Cooperation (SAARC) was established in 1985. During these twenty three years, SAARC has prepared a robust intellectual base for regional cooperation and spread awareness amongst more than a...
By: Sukh Deo Muni and Rajshree Jetly [more]

W-2008/7: Connecting Civil Societies III: An Asia-Europe Dialogue on Economy and Society

Held in the lead-up to the ASEM 7 Summit, the Conference “Connecting Civil Societies III: An Asia-Europe Dialogue on Economy and Society” (Beijing, 17 and 18 October 2008) has explored how ASEM has promoted civil society...

W-2008/6: The European Union and Central America: negotiating an interregional agreement

Regional integration schemes have proliferated around the world and with them the interaction between regions or interregionalism. The European Union (EU) has been supporting these integration efforts worldwide, putting special...
By: Beatriz Véliz Argueta [more]

W-2008/5: The European Union Economic Partnership Agreements with Sub-Saharan Africa

This paper analyses the impacts of Economic Partnership Agreements (EPAs) between the ACP (African, Caribbean and Pacific) countries and those of the EU (European Union) in the specific case of Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). In order...
By: Alice Sindzingre [more]

W-2008/4: Social Dimension of Integration: Guidelines for an Action Plan in the areas of health, education, housing and employment

This study is foreseen in Project I.2 of the Work Programme of the Permanent Secretariat for the year 2008, approved during the XXXIII Regular Meeting of the Latin American Council of SELA. First of all, this analytical...
By: SELA [more]

W-2008/3: Deepening the Social Dimensions of Regional Integration: An Overview of Recent Trends and Future Challenges in Light of the Recommendations of the Report of the World Commission on the Social Dimension of Globalisation

The report ‘A Fair Globalisation: Creating Opportunities for All’ of the World Commission on the Social Dimension of Globalisation claims that regional integration can contribute to a more equitable pattern of globalisation, but...
By: UNU-CRIS [more]

W-2008/2: Dynamics of Regional (non-) integration in Eastern Africa

The African continent has witnessed since the nineties a rebirth of regional arrangements aiming at furthering the integration of Africa. However the process of regional integration has faced a great variety of obstacles....
By: Emmanuel Fanta [more]

W-2008/1: Trade Agreements, Labour Standards and Political Parties. Differences between the U.S. and the EU in their Approach towards the Inclusion of Labour Standards in International Trade Agreements

The connection between labour standards and international trade has become a key issue in therelations between industrialised economies and developing countries. Both the US and the EU areadvocates of the inclusion of “labour...
By: Bart Kerremans and Myriam Martins Gistelinck [more]

W-2007/15: Building Productive Capacities for Trade Competitiveness: Economic Partnership Agreements (EPAs) and UNIDO's Response

The current background paper has been prepared for the High-level Panel “Building productivecapacities for trade competitiveness: Economic Partnership Agreements(EPAs)”, taking place during the 12th Session of the UNIDO...
By: Adrian Schöning [more]

W-2007/14: Preferential Rules of Origin and the Multilateral Trading System: Pro-Development Policy Options

Since the proliferation of regional trade agreements in the late 1980s and early 1990s(the so-called new regionalism wave), preferential rules of origin (RoO) have also proliferated. The discussion on these rules gradually...
By: Philippe De Lombaerde and Luis Jorge Garay [more]

W-2007/13: Regional Representation in the WTO - A New Role for Regional Trade Clubs?

This paper analyses the crisis of decision making in the WTO from the perspective ofcollective action and public goods theory. At the heart of the current policy paralysis isthe inability of WTO members to collectively provide...
By: Brigid Gavin [more]

W-2007/12: Regionalism and the Problem of Representation in the WTO

The WTO’s system of consensus-based decision making has come under increasing stress in recentyears, especially in the wake of high-profile breakdowns in negotiations at the Seattle and Cancunministerial meetings, culminating in...
By: Kent Jones [more]

W-2007/11: Trade Structure as a Constraint to Multilateral and Regional Arrangements in Sub-Saharan Africa: The WTO and the African Union

A crucial factor explains the poor economic performance of Sub-Saharan Africa, i.e. therisky market and trade structure that is entailed by commodity dependence, because ofthe volatility of commodity prices, therefore the...
By: Alice Sindzingre [more]

W-2007/10: Regional and Issue Specific Coalitions in the WTO: The Contribution of ASEAN to Legitimizing Decision-Making

The World Trade Organization (WTO) has undertaken systemic reforms since its establishmentfollowing the conclusion of the Uruguay Round in 1994. Indeed, the very dynamics of the WTOnegotiating processes have underdone...
By: Charles Tsai [more]

W-2007/9: Coopération régionale dans le domaine de la culture: promotion de la sécurité humaine et du développement

Le présent document analyse les liens entre la culture et la coopération et l’intégration régionalesainsi que leurs répercussions sur la sécurité humaine et le développement. La culture peut être undomaine de coopération...
By: Nikki Slocum-Bradley [more]

W-2007/8: Monitoring and (Good) Governance of the Integration Process in the European Union

This chapter looks at the extent to which monitoring processes and activities provide theintegration in the European Union (EU) with sufficient levels of transparency andaccountability to make it the relatively well-governed,...
By: Ana-Cristina Costea, Philippe De Lombaerde, Wouter De Vriendt, Birger Fühne [more]

W-2007/7: China-Latin America Relations in the XXI Century: Partners or Rivals?

In the short run, China’s rise as a major global trade player is already creatingwinners and losers in Latin America and the Caribbean. On the winning side are theeconomies of the Southern Common Market (MERCOSUR), Argentina,...
By: Uziel Nogueira [more]

W-2007/6: Micro-Regionalism in Africa: Competing Region-Building in the Maputo Development Corridor

Regionalist processes are occurring all over the world, not least the formation of micro-regionswhich, although obviously not a new occurrence, are more and more cross-border in nature ratherthan being contained within the...
By: Fredrik Söderbaum and Ian Taylor [more]

W-2007/5: Towards a Social-oriented Multi-level Framework for International Migration Governance

The purpose of this paper is to provide a brief overview of what’s been happening since the release of the World Commission’s report that could indicate a trend towards the development of a global framework for the cross-border...
By: Frédérique Channac [more]

W-2007/4: Cultural Diversity and Regional Trade Agreements: The Case of Audiovisual Services

The difficult relationship between the two global public goods of cultural plurality andinternational economic integration is often analysed at world level, stressing thejurisdictional overlap between the WTO system and other...
By: Silvia Formentini and Lelio Iapadre [more]

W-2007/3: Designing a Monitoring Instrument for Economic Partnership Agreements: Methodological issues

The African, Caribbean and Pacific (ACP) states and the European Union (EU) countries haveagreed to negotiate new WTO-compatible Economic Partnership Agreements (EPAs) that shouldnot be an end in itself, but be first and foremost...
By: Sanoussi Bilal and Francesco Rampa [more]

W-2007/2: Problematising Regional Integration in Latin America: Regional Identity and the Enmeshed State - The Central American Case

Studies of Latin American regional integration follow two strands of thought. The first,which I refer to as the ‘classic,’ interprets regionalism as a logical process: a continuumin which economic cooperation would lead to...
By: José Caballero [more]

W-2007/1: A Political Early Warning - Response System to Address Global and Regional Threats

In this essay I discuss how the international community could conceptualise, understand andreact to global and regional threats. The recent United Nations’ (UN) High-level Panel onThreats, Challenges and Change, and other world...
By: Tapio Kanninen [more]

O-2006/30: Regional Integration in the European Union: Enlargement without Constitution

Much of the debate on regional integration in the European Union (EU) has for a longtime focused on the ‘deepening’ and ‘widening’ of the integration project, and thebalance between these two movements. The process as such was...
By: Philippe De Lombaerde et al. [more]

O-2006/29: Towards Establishing a Research Institute for Asian Integration - Introducing European Experiences

Over the past five years, there has been a big debate on how to further Asianintegration. Visions and plans have emerged from the East Asian Vision Group (2001),the findings of the East Asian Study Group published in 2002, and...
By: Brigid Gavin [more]

O-2006/28: Regional Trade Agreements in Asia - Implications for the Multilateral Trade System

The past two decades have seen the emergence of two paradoxical developments ininternational trade policy making. The multilateral trade system (MTS) has grown andexpanded to include 149 member countries. Most of the new members...
By: Brigid Gavin [more]

O-2006/27: Economic Partnership Agreements between the EU and Groups of ACP Countries: Will They Promote Development?

In this paper we explore the nature and effects of the Economic Partnership Agreements(EPAs) between the EU and groups of African, Caribbean and Pacific (ACP) countries.We argue that the direct economic effects from reciprocal...
By: Karel Van Hoestenberghe and Hein Roelfsema [more]

O-2006/26: Trade Liberalization Indexes and the Evaluation of Preferential Trade Agreements. A Note on Ruiz Estrada

The author critically evaluates the proposal for a new analytical model aimed atevaluating ex ante the conditions to form free trade areas among groups of countries(the Trade Liberalization Evaluation –TLE- Methodology, see Ruiz...
By: Philippe De Lombaerde [more]

O-2006/25: Human Security in Central America

The assessment of human security (HS) challenges and prospects in Central America (CA) presents acomplex and contradictory picture. The region has been quite tumultuous during the past three decades,and the legacy of war, social...
By: Philippe De Lombaerde and Matthew Norton [more]

O-2006/24: Vlaanderen en de Benelux: Elementen voor een toekomstvisie

Deze tekst presenteert een samenvatting van een onderzoek uitgevoerd door de Universiteitvan de Verenigde Naties (UNU-CRIS; Brugge) en het Instituut voor Internationaal Recht vande KUL. Het onderzoek liep van 1 januari 2005 tot...
By: Jan Wouters et al. [more]

O-2006/23: Regional Cooperation in the Area of Culture: The Promotion of Human Security and Development

The paper examines the relationships between culture and regional cooperation/integration and theirimplications for human security and development. While culture can be the content of regionalcooperation, regional cooperation and...
By: Nikki Slocum-Bradley [more]

O-2006/22: Disproportionality Measures of Concentration, Specialization, and Polarization

This paper extends the methodological toolbox of measures of the regional concentrationof industries and the industrial specialization of regions. It, first, defines the class of disproportionalitymeasures of concentration and...
By: Frank Bickenbach and Eckhardt Bode [more]

O-2006/21: The EU's Preferences for Multilateralism; A SWOT Analysis of EU/UN Relations

This paper aims to present an overview of the EU-UN relations and map the actualand possible EU-UN relationships and their implications for global governance. First,a general overview is presented of how the EU and the UN...
By: Luk Van Langenhove, Isabella Torta and Tania Felicio [more]

O-2006/20: Conflict Prevention and Peace-Building in the Regional Context - UNU-CRIS/DPA Seminar Report

On 28 and 29 April 2006, the United Nations University Programme on comparative RegionalIntegration Studies (UNU-CRIS) and the United Nations Department for Political Affairs (UNDPA)convened a seminar to consider the evolving...
By: Tania Felicio [more]

O-2006/19: Do South-South Trade Agreements Increase Trade? Commodity-Level Evidence from COMESA

South-South trade agreements are proliferating: Developing countries signed 70 newagreements between 1990 and 2003. Yet the impact of these agreements is largely unknown.In this paper, we focus on the static effects of...
By: Ana Maria Mayda and Chad Steinberg [more]

O-2006/18: Assessing RTAs in the Context of the Flying Geese Framework

Historical evidence suggests that development and trade are co-varying variables. Whichone leads the other is the big question that has been debated at length in political economy.Trade isolated as an end in itself had never been...
By: Emel Memis and Manuel F. Montes [more]

O-2006/17: Order in World Politics - An Inquiry into the Concept, Change and the EU's Contribution

This paper examines how the EU as an international actor contributed to the creation andsustenance of order in world politics since the end of the Cold War. To this end, it advancesan operationalization of order that takes the...
By: Erwin van Veen [more]

O-2006/16: Measuring Trade Diversion - the Case of Russian Exports in the Advent of EU Enlargement

This paper is an attempt to assess the possible trade diversion from the Russian Federation causedby the 2004 EU enlargement to 10 Central and Eastern European Countries (CEECs). Left out ofthe club, Russia has been confronted...
By: Aurora Mordonu [more]

O-2006/15: Globalisation and the Knowledge-Based Society; Where does Europe Stand in Comparison to Other Regional Areas?

Economically, the last fifty years, the world has witnessed an unparalleled growth andtransformation. Economic development has been spurred by the opening up and ensuingexpansion of world trade and the dramatic reduction in...
By: Luc Soete [more]

O-2006/14: The European Union and Social Policy: An Innovative Approach to Regional Integration?

The social dimension of European Union has sometimes mockingly been called the'Cinderella' of integration as a way of signaling its lowly status and the lack of regardin which it is held in the European family. Strangely, the...
By: Monica Threlfall [more]

O-2006/13: Social Dimensions of Regional Integration - A High Level Symposium: Conclusions

The aim of this symposium was to analyse the social dimensions of regionalintegration policies. It was suggested that policy orientated social science could helpidentify the potential advantages for countries of taking further...
By: Bob Deacon, Nicola Yeates and Luk Van Langenhove [more]

O-2006/12: Legitimisation and Expressions of Identity and Attitude: A Discursve Approach

This paper explores the nature of and relationship between ‘identities’ and‘legitimacy’. First, an analytical distinction is made between expressions of identityand expressions of attitudes about Europe and the European Union. A...
By: Nikki Slocum-Bradley [more]

O-2006/11: CSME and the Intra Regional Migration of Nurses: Some Proposed Opportunities

Caricom as a small regional trading agreement is characterised by economies withdiffering degrees of development. This paper reviews the differing economic attributesof these various Caricom states and then discusses in detail...
By: Roger Hosein and Clive Thomas [more]

O-2006/10: The New Regionalism in Latin America and the Role of the US

In this article, the authors analyse the characteristics of the new regionalism in LatinAmerica since the late eighties. It is shown that, on the one hand, it is related to theconsiderable multiplication of the number of regional...
By: Philippe De Lombaerde and Luis Jorge Garay [more]

O-2006/9: Benelux Revisited

With the support of the Royal Netherlands Embassy in Luxembourg, theLuxembourg Institute for European and International Studies (LIEIS) and theClingendael Institute of International Relations convened a seminar on...
By: Adrian Pabst [more]

Displaying results 91 to 135 out of 208

< Previous






Next >

United Nations University Institute - Comparative Regional Integration Studies
Potterierei 72, 8000 Brugge, BE-Belgium
Tel.: +32 50 47 11 00 / Fax.: +32 50 47 13 09
Email: pvantorre@cris.unu.edu