UNU-CRIS Working Papers

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The Working Papers Series on Comparative Regional Integration Studies is devoted to the study of regional integration from a comparative and interdisciplinary perspective. It covers theory, empirical work and policy analysis, and includes contributions on the political, economic, social and cultural aspects of co-operation at the level of both macro-regions and micro-regions. While committed to the highest academic standards, the series aims to be accessible to policy-makers and practitioners and seeks to encourage informed debate on comparative regional integration.

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W-2014/9: The EU's Role and Interest in Promoting Regional Integration in Central America

By: Joren Selleslaghs

As the EU’s regional strategy paper for Central America states, the Union actively promotes and supports the Central American regional integration process in a wide variety of ways. In this working paper, we will critically analyze whether or not this truly is the case, and, if so, how the EU then shapes this support. We will argue that the EU indeed does so because of various strategic considerations and through various ways of financial and technical assistance, by negotiating a free trade agreement, and through region-to-region political dialogue and norm diffusion.

Keywords: Central America, regions, regional integration, interregionalism, EU, Latin America, EU external relations, norm diffusion.

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W-2016/1: International Diffusion and the Puzzle of African Regionalism: Insights from West Africa

Abstract Since decolonization, Sub-Saharan Africa has seen the birth of a large number of regional initiatives whose institutional set up and high integration ambitions are inspired by the model of the European Union (EU). West...
By: Giulia Piccolino [more]

W-2015/7: Regionalism and Well-Being: A Critical Assessment of the Central American Regional Strategy for Health

AbstractThere is no slowdown in the pace towards regional integration to facilitate and strengthen political and economic relations. Whether abroad or closer to home, cooperation amongst a group of countries will inevitably...
By: Gabriela Cruz [more]

W-2015/6: Regional Responses to Terrorism - A Comparative Study: The Arab League and the African Union

AbstractThis research paper explores reactions by regional organisations to terrorist threats that have transgressed national borders and have gained regional magnitude. The study is shaped as a comparative analysis of two...
By: Raluca Dragan [more]

W-2015/5: Have European Union Mobility Partnerships been Obliterated in Turbulent Mediterranean Waters?

Abstract: After presenting the context behind the content analysis of the European Union’s Mobility Partnerships with Jordan, Morocco and Tunisia this report articulates policy proposals to render the partnerships more relevant...
By: Stephen Kingah and Alexander Lazarowicz [more]

W-2015/4: The EU Index of Integration Effort

AbstractRegardless of the strides that have been made by the European Union (EU) in terms of economic integration, levels of heterogeneity of the economies have been growing. There appears to be divergence between hub/spoke...
By: Jörg König [more]

W-2015/3: Is Interregional AU-ASEAN Diffusion in the South Barren?

Abstract:In a field dominated by a discourse that paints the European Union (EU) as a change agent providing initial stimuli, it is refreshing that the transmission or diffusion of norms, values, processes and institutional...
By: Stephen Kingah and Charles Akong [more]

W-2015-2: Inter-State Cooperation in Energy Transit

The authors discuss the ambiguities surrounding allusions often made to global energy governance, focusing mainly on the question of energy transit. They discuss how the issue has been sanctioned in various regimes in...
By: Dr Rafael Leal-Arcas and Andrew Filis [more]

W-2014/16: Integration Efforts in Central Africa: The Case of CEMAC

Abstract The creation of the economic and monetary community of central Africa (CEMAC) in 1994 as the successor to the economic and customs union of central Africa (UDEAC) engendered much hope in the sub-regional integration...
By: Guy Marcel Nono [more]

W-2014/15: Defender, Not Promoter: The Limits to the African Union's Pursuit of Democratic Consolidation

Independently of the fact that the replacement of overtly authoritarian regimes in many African countries appeared to presage fundamental political change, a closer examination of democratic trends since the establishment of the...
By: Eleanor Friel [more]

W-2014/14: Regional Organisations and the Responsibility to Protect: Challenging the African Union's Implementation of the Responsibility to Protect

After the Cold War African regional organisations with the African Union (AU) at the forefront, began to develop their own peace and security systems and undertook a proactive strategy, recognising their responsibility to protect...
By: Maruša Veber [more]

W-2014/13: Free Trade Agreements and Constitutional Rights: The Ecuadorian Case

This article discusses how Ecuador’s participation in negotiations of Free Trade Agreements (FTA) over the last decade has been shaped by two factors: the involvement of interest groups and other actors who have influenced...
By: Michel Levi, César Montaño Galarza and Cristina Crosby Casali [more]

W-2014/12: The Post-2015 UN Development Framework: Perspectives for Regional Involvement

To what extent can regional entities contribute to the formulation of contextualised priorities in the post-2015 development agenda? The joint report of the UN Regional Commissions on “A Regional Perspective on the...
By: Emanuela Maria Cavaleri [more]

W-2014/11: Fondements constitutionnels de l'intégration régionale en Afrique: de l'opérationnalité du concept d'"Unité africaine"

Abstract One of the leitmotifs of Africa’s continental bodies from the Organization of African Unity to its successor (the African Union) has been to define and implement regional integration disciplines. This goal was well...
By: Samuel-Jacques Priso-Essawe [more]

W-2014/10: Determinants of Regional Leadership: IBSA in Perspective

The role of regional leadership in multi-polarity is the core focus of the third work package of the EU funded project known as Global Re-ordering: Evolution through European Networks (GR:EEN). Within this framework, the desire...
By: Tyler Olinski, Sonja Pfeiffer and Alessandra Ricci [more]

W-2014/9: The EU's Role and Interest in Promoting Regional Integration in Central America

As the EU’s regional strategy paper for Central America states, the Union actively promotes and supports the Central American regional integration process in a wide variety of ways. In this working paper, we will critically...
By: Joren Selleslaghs [more]

W-2014/8: Managing Global Interdependence on the Central American Isthmus: EU-Central America Interregional Relations

The European Union (EU)-Central American interregional relationship has often been referred to as “one of the most successful examples of EU relations with any sub-region in the world” (former Commissioner for External Relations...
By: Joren Selleslaghs [more]

W-2014/7: Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children as a Violation of Children's Rights: What Role for Regional Organizations?

The phenomena of Child Sex Tourism (CST) and Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children (CSEC) have penetrated every corner of the world. States have gathered together to draft and adopt international legislation to protect...
By: Judeska Isenia [more]

W-2014/6: Multilateralism 2.0: Finding Some Evidence

Multilateralism is a poor, ugly duckling among concepts used to study International Relations. After defining the object of this study through a literature review, the paper selects a metaphor derived from the ICT world –...
By: Alessandra Ricci [more]

W-2014/5: Apport de la Guadeloupe à la gestion des risques majeurs dans la Caraïbe: Exemple de la construction durable

AbstractThe island of Guadeloupe is found in the Caribbean Sea. It became a French department on 19 March 1946 and developed into an overseas region of the European Union when France ratified the Treaty of Maastricht on 7...
By: Sophie Brudey [more]

W-2014/4: Worlds Apart? Towards a Theory of Democratic Dissent in Transnational Governance Networks

Transnational public-private or entirely private policy and regulatory networks are becoming a permanent feature of global governance. These networks of public goods provision aim to address the accountability, participation and...
By: Georgios Papanagnou [more]

W-2014/3: Conditions for Effective Regional Social (Health) Policies: The EU and UNASUR Compared

This paper discusses the conditions that are necessary for effective regional social protection policies. Following a presentation of theoretical considerations, it empirally juxtaposes two regional organisations. These include...
By: Luk Van Langenhove and Stephen Kingah [more]

W-2014/2: The Evolution of Supranational Regionalism: From Top-down Regulatory Governance to Sustainability Regions?

Supranational regionalism has been a definitive feature of world politics in the 20th century. Regional organizations have grown in numbers and roles, amid the general quest for economic integration and globalization. Yet, in the...
By: Lorenzo Fioramonti [more]

W-2014/1: Addressing Human Rights in the Court of Justice of the Andean Community and Tribunal of the Southern African Development Community (SADC)

The goal of this article is to compare how the regional tribunals of the Andean Community (CAN) and Southern African Development Community (SADC) have dealt with human rights issues. While focus is placed on the rules applied by...
By: Giovanni Molano Cruz and Stephen Kingah [more]

W-2013/13: A Survival Technique for the 21st Century: Regional Integration in Central America

This working paper discusses the Central American regional Integration system (SICA) that tries to unite all Central American states into one economic and political union. SICA is one of the more advanced regional integration...
By: Joren Selleslaghs [more]

W-2013/12: Is Economic Growth the Required "Catalyst" for South Asian Integration?

South Asia is one of the least integrated regions of the world. This is despite the fact that in the last few decades there has been a considerable upsurge in the economic activities in almost all the countries of this...
By: Dhananjay Tripathi [more]

W-2013/11: Regional Courts and Human Rights in the Developing World

There are important advocacy groups that favour greater respect for human rights at the (sub) regional level in the form of courts in many parts of the developing world. Many important developments are taking place in terms of...
By: Stephen Kingah [more]

W-2013/10: The Sustainable Development Clauses in Free Trade Agreements: An EU Perspective for ASEAN?

This paper reviews the sustainable development provisions in the EU’s Generalised System of Preferences as well as in the EU-Korea FTA discussing the recent negotiations on bilateral trade agreements with ASEAN countries in view...
By: Ludo Cuyvers [more]

W-2013/9: I Just Read 296 Trade Agreements

Until now, conventional gravity-equation studies of trade agreements and international trade have assumed all agreements to be equal. This is witnessed by the use of binary variables to account for the presence of such economic...
By: Tristan Kohl [more]

W-2013/8: Security Governance in a Comparative Regional Perspective

This article aims to explore the relationship between domestic economic and political conditions and the performance of 14 regional organisations over a range of security provisions. It argues that the willingness of member...
By: Emil Kirchner and Roberto Dominguez [more]

W-2013/7: Regionalising Global Social Policy in Times of Economic Crisis

This article presents the manner in which regional organisations have been applying some of the underlying tenets of global social policy (GSP) in their respective regions. It notes the challenges regional entities face in doing...
By: Stephen Kingah [more]

W-2013/6: Digital Publics in Transnational Spaces: EU Blogs and the European Public Sphere

The paper presents the results of the empirical research conducted on the emerging EU-blogosphere and relates them to the Habermasian notion of the public sphere. Conceptually, it traces the development of the public sphere as a...
By: Georgios Papanagnou [more]

W-2013/5: The History and Concept of Regionalism

The growth of regionalism expressed as formal regional organisation has received a great deal of scholarly attention since the Second World War.  From its early days regionalism has been much debated, and alternatively...
By: Louise Fawcett [more]

W-2013/4: South Sudan, Sudan and the East African Community: Potential of Enhanced Relationships

Since the independence of South Sudan both the South and the North face an even more urgent need to diversify their economies beyond oil. They also need to diversify their international partnerships. Despite the agreement of the...
By: Dirk Hansohm [more]

W-2013/3: The Environment in the Andean Community and Mercosur

The paper compares the processes of regional integration in the environmental policy-area of the Andean Community (CAN) and the Common Market of the South (Mercosur). South America is in various ways challenged by environmental...
By: Christopher König [more]

W-2013/2: Analysis of the EU in the Context of the European Neighbourhood Policy: Regional or Global Leadership in Peace and Security

This paper examines the European Union’s prospect to exert influence in the domain of peace and security within the ambit of its neighbourhood in the context of the European Neighbourhood Policy (ENP). The analysis is conducted...
By: Balazs Ujvari [more]

W-2013/1: The Organisation for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) in Interorganisational Cooperation: Conceptual and Historical Aspect of Cooperation in Peace and Security

This paper will explore the Organisation for Security and Cooperation in Europe’s (OSCE’s) understanding of the security concept and its application to the Organisation’s activities. It also evaluates the effectiveness and...
By: Hana Umezawa [more]

W-2012/12: Preliminary Analysis of Water Security in the Mekong River Basin

The political climate in Southeast Asia is primed and on the cusp of a transformation. The purpose of this study is to discern both the existence and strength of the relationship between water security and regional integration in...
By: Elena Ponte [more]

W-2012/11: Andean Community's 'Platform Effect' in Manufacturing Exports - A Case of Trade Compatibility between South-South and North-South Trade Agreements

The motivation to carry out the academic research that led to the results presented in this paper stems from the need to address some issues of conceptual and policy making importance, which are evident when considering some of...
By: Fernando Gonzalez-Vigil and Hector Zevallos Urquieta [more]

W-2012/10: Beyond Pro Liberal Conventional Wisdom that dominates the World Bank: Insights from Historical and Discursive Institutionalism

On 16 April 2012 the World Bank’s (the Bank) Board of Executive Directors approved the nomination of Dr Jim Yong Kim as the new president of the World Bank Group. It is not surprising that, as an American, Dr Kim was selected....
By: Stephen Kingah and Georgios Papanagnou [more]

W-2012/9: UN-EU Cooperation in Peace and Security in the 21st Century: Development of Structural Relationship

The purpose of this paper is to explore the development of UN-EU cooperation in peace and security and its present and prospective contribution to the maintenance of security in the 21st century. Both the UN and the EU have faced...
By: Hana Umezawa [more]

W-2012/8: EU's Engagement with African (Sub)Regional Parliaments of ECOWAS, SADC, the EAC and the AU

One of the remarkable untold stories in the recent strides made in many countries to ascertain democratic freedoms has been the silence and reticence of regional parliaments. Many regional entities of the South, especially those...
By: Stephen Kingah and Andrea Cofelice [more]

W-2012/7: Sudan's Reintegration into the World Economy: What Role for Regional Integration?

Sudan is a country that is emerging from a series of protracted wars. It is still grappling with new developments in its region including the creation of a new country in its south in the form of South Sudan. It is true that...
By: Dirk Hansohm [more]

W-2012/6: UN-Regional Organisational Cooperation in Peace and Security: Development and Future Prospects

The purpose of this paper is to explore the direction of the debate within the UN on the nature of UN-regional organisational cooperation in the post-Cold War security environment and its future implications. Based on lessons...
By: Hana Umezawa [more]

W-2012/5: How Regional and Global Development Banks Responded to the Financial Crisis

The G20 resolved in one of its Working Groups in 2008 to address the issues of reform in regional and multilateral development banks. This was partly in recognition of the fact that that some of the rules pertaining to the...
By: Stephen Kingah and Aliya Salimzhuarova [more]

W-2012/4: Enhanced Coordination between the World Bank and Regional Development Banks as a Means to Reduce Perceived Inequalities at the World Bank

This paper will discuss some of the issues of legitimacy and inequalities perceived to be pervasive in the governance structure of the World Bank (WB). It will explore proposals of the Meltzer, Malan and Zedillo Commissions on...
By: Stephen Kingah and Aliya Salimzhuarova [more]

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